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Spelling Rules

Spelling Rule

Example Words

Useful links and worksheets

The sound spelt as ge and dge at the end of words, and sometimes spelt as g  or j elsewhere in words before e, i and y

badge, edge, bridge,

age, huge, change,

gem, giant, magic, giraffe,

jacket, jar, jog, join, adjust

Flash Cards

Worksheet

The /s/ sound spelt c before e, i and y

race, ice, cell, city, fancy

 

The /n/ sound spelt kn and (less often) gn at the beginning of words

knock, know, knee, gnat, gnaw

 

The /r/ sound spelt wr at the beginning of words

write, written, wrote, wrong, wrap

 

The /l/  sound spelt –le at the end of words

table, apple, bottle, little, middle

 

The /l/ sound spelt el

camel, tunnel, squirrel,

 

The /l/  sound spelt –al at the end of words

metal, pedal, capital, hospital, animal

 

Words ending –il

pencil, fossil, nostril

 

The /aɪ/ sound spelt –y at the end of words

cry, fly, dry, try, reply, July

 

Adding –es to nouns and verbs ending in –y

flies, tries, replies, copies, babies, carries

 

Adding –ed, –ing, –er and –est to a root word ending in –y with a consonant before it

copied, copier, happier, happiest, cried, replied …but copying, crying, replying

Exceptions skiing and taxiing.

 

Adding the endings –ing, –ed, –er, –est and –y to words ending in –e with a consonant before it

hiking, hiked, hiker, nicer, nicest, shiny

 

Adding –ing, –ed, –er, –est and –y to words of one syllable ending in a single consonant letter after a single vowel letter

patting, patted, humming, hummed, dropping, dropped, sadder, saddest, fatter, fattest, runner, runny

 

The /or/ sound spelt as a before l and ll.

all, ball, call, walk, talk, always

 

The  sound o

other, mother, brother, nothing, Monday

 

The /ee/ sound spelt –ey

key, donkey, monkey, chimney, valley

 

The /o/ sound spelt a after w and qu

want, watch, wander, quantity, squash

 

The /er/ sound spelt or after w

word, work, worm, world, worth

 

The /or/ sound spelt ar after w

war, warm, towards

 

The /zu/ sound spelt s

television, treasure,usual

 

The suffixes –ment, –ness, –ful , –less and –ly

enjoyment, sadness, careful, playful,

hopeless, plainness (plain + ness), badly merriment, happiness, plentiful, penniless, happily

 

Contractions

can’t, didn’t, hasn’t, couldn’t, it’s, I’ll

 

The possessive apostrophe (singular nouns)

Megan’s, Ravi’s, the girl’s, the child’s, the man’s

 

Words ending in –tion

station, fiction, motion, national, section

 

Homophones and near-homophones

there/their/they’re, here/hear, quite/quiet, see/sea, bare/bear, one/won, sun/son, to/too/two, be/bee,

 

Common exception words

door, floor, poor, because, find, kind, mind, behind, child, children*, wild, climb, most, only, both, old, cold, gold, hold, told, every, everybody, even, great, break, steak, pretty, beautiful, after, fast, last, past, father, class, grass, pass, plant, path, bath, hour, move, prove, improve, sure, sugar, eye, could, should, would, who, whole, any, many, clothes, busy, people, water, again, half, money, Mr, Mrs, parents, Christmas – and/or others according to programme used

 

Note: ‘children’ is not an exception to what has been taught so far but is included because of its relationship with‘child’.

 
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