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Spelling Rules

Spelling Rule

Example Words

Useful links and worksheets

The sound spelt as ge and dge at the end of words, and sometimes spelt as g  or j elsewhere in words before e, i and y

badge, edge, bridge,

age, huge, change,

gem, giant, magic, giraffe,

jacket, jar, jog, join, adjust

Flash Cards


The /s/ sound spelt c before e, i and y

race, ice, cell, city, fancy

Cinderella Story

The /n/ sound spelt kn and (less often) gn at the beginning of words

knock, know, knee, gnat, gnaw

Silent "K"

The /r/ sound spelt wr at the beginning of words

write, written, wrote, wrong, wrap

"WR" worksheet

The /l/  sound spelt –le at the end of words

table, apple, bottle, little, middle

"le" ending worksheet

The /l/ sound spelt el

camel, tunnel, squirrel,

el worksheet

The /l/  sound spelt –al at the end of words

metal, pedal, capital, hospital, animal

al worksheet

Words ending –il

pencil, fossil, nostril

il worksheet

The /aɪ/ sound spelt –y at the end of words

cry, fly, dry, try, reply, July

y worksheet

y worksheet 2

Adding –es to nouns and verbs ending in –y

flies, tries, replies, copies, babies, carries

the Y rule

Adding –ed, –ing, –er and –est to a root word ending in –y with a consonant before it

copied, copier, happier, happiest, cried, replied …but copying, crying, replying

Exceptions skiing and taxiing.

Y rule crossword

Adding the endings –ing, –ed, –er, –est and –y to words ending in –e with a consonant before it

hiking, hiked, hiker, nicer, nicest, shiny


To double or not to double

Adding –ing, –ed, –er, –est and –y to words of one syllable ending in a single consonant letter after a single vowel letter

patting, patted, humming, hummed, dropping, dropped, sadder, saddest, fatter, fattest, runner, runny


The /or/ sound spelt as a before l and ll.

all, ball, call, walk, talk, always


The  sound o

other, mother, brother, nothing, Monday


The /ee/ sound spelt –ey

key, donkey, monkey, chimney, valley


The /o/ sound spelt a after w and qu

want, watch, wander, quantity, squash


The /er/ sound spelt or after w

word, work, worm, world, worth


The /or/ sound spelt ar after w

war, warm, towards


The /zu/ sound spelt s

television, treasure,usual


The suffixes –ment, –ness, –ful , –less and –ly

enjoyment, sadness, careful, playful,

hopeless, plainness (plain + ness), badly merriment, happiness, plentiful, penniless, happily



can’t, didn’t, hasn’t, couldn’t, it’s, I’ll


The possessive apostrophe (singular nouns)

Megan’s, Ravi’s, the girl’s, the child’s, the man’s


Words ending in –tion

station, fiction, motion, national, section


Homophones and near-homophones

there/their/they’re, here/hear, quite/quiet, see/sea, bare/bear, one/won, sun/son, to/too/two, be/bee,


Common exception words

door, floor, poor, because, find, kind, mind, behind, child, children*, wild, climb, most, only, both, old, cold, gold, hold, told, every, everybody, even, great, break, steak, pretty, beautiful, after, fast, last, past, father, class, grass, pass, plant, path, bath, hour, move, prove, improve, sure, sugar, eye, could, should, would, who, whole, any, many, clothes, busy, people, water, again, half, money, Mr, Mrs, parents, Christmas – and/or others according to programme used


Note: ‘children’ is not an exception to what has been taught so far but is included because of its relationship with‘child’.



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